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Savanna Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3(1):71-80
Determination of Soil Radioactivity and Radiological Hazard Indices in Nigeria: A Review
Samaila B. and Tampul H.M

ABSTRACT
Soils are used extensively for agricultural practice and as major mixing materials for building construction. Hence, there’s a great need to review the activity and concentrations of natural radionuclide present in the soil in order to accurately assess the radiological health implications to the members of the public utilizing the soil in building constructions and Agricultural activities. It was reported in different literature that, the exposure to radiation emanated from natural radionuclide affect the respiratory track and radon with its decay products in the soils are the reason. Continuous absorption of the radionuclide in the soil imposed high risk health hazard to public such as cancer of the lung, hypokalemia, heart disease, mutation, and others. Therefore, it becomes very important to review and identify the region with high or low level of concentrations of radionuclide in the soil. This work aimed at reviewing the natural radionuclide levels in the soil samples collected from the Mining sites, Normal living, working, and non-living environments by different researchers and Scholars in Nigeria. The highest activity Concentration was reported in Ibadan, ijero, Bitsichi, Bakuru, Ropp, Odua and Oguta for 238U,226Ra, 232Th, and 40K respectively, while the highest radiological hazard indices such as Absorbed Dose Rate, Annual Effective Dose, Radium equivalent and Excess Life Cancer Risk were recorded in Bitsichi, Oguta, Odua, Bitsichi, Oguta and Port Harcourt respectively. Similarly external, internal and gamma index were generally low compare to worldwide average value. Therefore, based on this review, it was figured out that some areas in Nigeria are radiologically unsafe for inhabitants.