Savanna Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 4(1):58-64
Levels and Risk Assessment of Heavy metals in selected Leafy Vegetables consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Northwestern Nigeria
Yahaya, T. O., Mohammed, U. F., Umar, J., Abdulazeez, A., Danjuma, J. B., Izuafa, A. and Shamsudeen, A.

Vegetables are important source of health-boosting nutrients. However, studies suggest that vegetables may contain unsafe levels of chemical compounds due to the widespread pollutants in the environment, prompting a safety assessment of vegetables sold in every locality. The current study, therefore, assessed the levels and risk of heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa), red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. Samples of the vegetables were collected from three markets (Kara, Kalgo, and Central Market) in the city according to standard procedure, treated and analyzed for the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cupper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). From the data obtained, the daily intake of metals (DIM), hazard quotient (HQ), and health risk index (HRI) of the heavy metals were calculated. The AAS revealed that all the heavy metals were within the FAO/WHO permissible levels in the three vegetables across the markets. The DIM in the vegetables across the markets was also within the recommended limits. The HQ and HRI of the heavy metals in the vegetables studied were less than the threshold of 1. The results obtained suggest that the vegetables are safe for consumption.