Charcoal is dark grey residue consisting of Carbon and any remaining ash, produced by the slow process of heating wood and other substances in the absence of oxygen, called Pyrolysis. It is a cheap source of fuel to purchase and use but not without some challenges. This paper highlights the significance of charcoal production around the world, its roles in the economy of communities, and major challenges. Ibarapa Region of Oyo State in Western Nigeria is used as a case study. It is in eight major parts: Introduction and the world scene; typicality of Ibarapa Region of Nigeria; predominant methods of production; types and uses of charcoal; challenges to the communities and the nations; the place of Environmental Adult Education for sustainable production, transportation and consumption; and discussion, conclusion, and recommendations. The work uses essentially secondary sources of data and information. Charcoal production at a sub-industrial level is one of the causes of deforestation and environmental degradation. While it is regulated to a great extent in the developed world, it is illegally and nearly absolutely unregulated in the others such as in Brazil and Nigeria where production is largely illegal industry. The consequences have been devastating. Adult Environmental Education may generally take place in formal and non-formal education settings whereby organized learning can take place in many forms.