Climate change is a global environmental threat affecting every sector of the economy with agriculture been the most vulnerable particularly in Africa and expected to have a wide-ranging effect on the environment, and on socio-economic and related sectors, including water resources, agriculture and food security, human health, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity and coastal zones. The study employed systematic literature review. The review documents were selected based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The documents were obtained using search string “climate change impacts” or “climate environment” or “climate risk” or “climate change adaptation” or “adaptation risk” or “smallholder adaptation or “adaptation impacts” or “adaptive capacity” or “adaptation Sahel” or "adaptation ability”. The findings of the study revealed that famers in the study area have substantial knowledge of climate change and employed various strategies to adapt to its impacts. These adaptation measures include; livelihood diversification, soil and water conservation, intercropping, irrigation, late sowing, mulching, crop rotation, sowing improve variety, agroforestry, stones and earth bund terraces, diversion of small streams and runoff to farms, and off-farm labour among others. However, there is need for further research in climate change adaptation in Eritrea the vast majority of literatures that report adaptation are grey literatures and perhaps may not be peer reviewed.