Savannah ecosystem provides a multitude of ecosystem services, including forage production for herbivores, floristic diversity, and soil carbon sequestration. Soil nutrient has important roles for supporting plant species composition. This study aimed to determine annual plant species diversity in relation to soil chemical properties in two fallow lands (Bayero University, Kano, New Campus and Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbotso). Quadrats (1m x 1m) were used to determine plant species composition from June to October 2017. The soil sample was collected using soil auger at a depth between 0-15cm and chemical parameters were analyzed, using the standard method. Site A, had higher species density (51.51spp/m2) and lower diversity (H= 2.63 and CD= 0.432), while Site B, had lower density (31.69spp/m2) and higher diversity (H= 3.10 and CDI= 0.195), species composition and diversity was not statistically significant (P= 0.329). Soil properties were significantly higher in Site A, with the following means; Nitrogen (0.13%), Potassium (0.17 cmol/kg), Phosphorous (9.37 mg/kg), Organic Carbon (0.69%) and Organic matter (1.16%), while in Site B, had Nitrogen (0.12%), Potassium (0.10 cmol/kg), Phosphorous (9.28 mg/kg), Organic Carbon (0.37%) and Organic matter (0.63%). The result showed that available soil nutrients decreased plant species diversity but increased species composition in the savannah ecosystem. Further researches on the influence of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium on plant species diversity in the savannah ecosystem were recommended.