Savanna Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1(2):269-275
Nutrional and Medicinal Potential of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Leaf and Fruit Extracts
Anka, S. A., Aliero, B. L., Aliero, A. A., Belel, M. A., Ahmad, N. M. and Waziri, A. F.

Ziziphus mauritiana (LAM.) is a small, semi deciduous, drought resistant, usually spiny shrub or tree up to 12 m tall. The leaves are generally underutilized but the fruits for various purposes. Screening of leaves and fruits was conducted in 2018 to determine its nutritional and medicinal potential. The study evaluated phytochemical, proximate, mineral and antibacterial activity of the plant extracts. Qualitative phytochemical screening indicated high saponins in leaves and fruits, moderate alkaloids in fruits, trace flavonoids and tannins in leaves and fruits with trace alkaloids in fruits. Quantitative results (mg/100g dry weight) indicated saponins content of 92.65±6.20 and flavonoids (25.80±1.73) are higher in leaves whereas alkaloids content is more in fruits. No significant difference (P> 0.05) in tannins’ content of leaves (0.50±0.03) and fruits (0.30±0.02) but significantly higher alkaloids in fruits (3.40±0.23) than leaves (2.20±0.15). Proximate analysis revealed higher contents of Moisture (5.8±0.01), Ash (8.2±0.00), Crude Fibre (11.7±0.001) and Carbohydrates (34.05±0.00) in leaves, while fruits had significantly (P< 0.05) higher Crude protein (27.18±0.00) and Lipids (6.65±0.05). Mineral content’s analysis showed significantly (P< 0.05) higher sodium (154.79±10.50), potassium (389.08±10.69), manganese (2.0±0.14) and iron (1.21±0.15) in leaves, whereas fruits had significantly (P< 0.05) higher phosphorus (585.90±41.29), magnesium (7.0±0.12) and zinc (15.52±0.05). Antimicrobial screening indicated increase in zone of inhibition at higher concentrations of leaf and fruit extracts on the test organisms with greater effect in leaf than fruit extract. The observed nutritional and mineral constituents in both leaf and fruit of the plant indicate its potential for utilization in food and medicine.